Mellifluous viewport bitrate adaptation for 360 videos streaming over HTTP/2

Mellifluous viewport bitrate adaptation for 360 videos streaming over HTTP/2

  • Hung Nguyen East Asia University of Technology
Keywords: VR, HTTP/2, 360-degree video, QoE, Viewport Adaptive Streaming


Virtual reality provides an immersive experience
for users. Recently, there has been much research on adaptive
methods to play 360-degree video over HTTP/2 to bring users
excitement through user movements. This paper analyzes two
user behaviors that affect the user’s perception when watching
360-degree online videos. We also provide some measurements
and evaluation of the main features of 360 video streaming.


[1] T. Stockhammer. MPEG Immersive Media.
Accessed: 2023-12-27. [Online]. Available:
[2] V. H. Nguyen, N. N. Pham, C. T. Truong, D. T.
Bui, H. T. Nguyen, and T. H. Truong, “Retina-based
quality assessment of tile-coded 360-degree videos,”
EAI Endorsed Transactions on Industrial Networks
and Intelligent Systems, vol. 9, no. 32, 2022.
[3] Huewei. (2017) Virtual reality/aug-
mented reality white paper. [On-
line]. Available:
[4] H. Nguyen, T. N. Dao, N. S. Pham, T. L. Dang, T. D.
Nguyen, and T. H. Truong, “An accurate viewport
estimation method for 360 video streaming using deep
learning,” EAI Endorsed Transactions on Industrial
Networks and Intelligent Systems, vol. 9, no. 4, pp.
e2–e2, 2022.
[5] C. Ozcinar, A. De Abreu, and A. Smolic, “Viewport-
aware adaptive 360° video streaming using tiles for
virtual reality,” in 2017 IEEE International Confer-
ence on Image Processing (ICIP), Beijing, China, Sep.
2017, pp. 2174–2178.
[6] W. L. S. Ramos, M. M. Silva, E. R. Araujo, A. C.
Neves, and E. R. Nascimento, “Personalizing fast-
forward videos based on visual and textual features
from social network,” in 2020 IEEE Winter Confer-
ence on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV),
2020, pp. 3260–3269.
[7] T. C. Thang, H. T. Le, A. T. Pham, and Y. M. Ro, “An
evaluation of bitrate adaptation methods for HTTP
live streaming,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in
Communications, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 693–705, 2014.
[8] H. T. T. Tran, N. P. Ngoc, A. T. Pham, and T. C.
Thang, “A Multi-Factor QoE Model for Adaptive
Streaming over Mobile Networks,” in 2016 IEEE
Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Dec 2016, pp.
[9] D. V. Nguyen and H. T. T. Tran and T. C. Thang, “Im-
pact of delays on 360-degree video communications,”
in 2017 TRON Symposium (TRONSHOW), 12 2017,
pp. 1–6.
[10] F. Muheidat, K. Dajani, and L. A. Tawalbeh, “Security
concerns for 5g/6g mobile network technology
and quantum communication,” Procedia Computer
Science, vol. 203, pp. 32–40, 2022, 17th International
Conference on Future Networks and Communications
/ 19th International Conference on Mobile Systems
and Pervasive Computing / 12th International Confer-
ence on Sustainable Energy Information Technology
(FNC/MobiSPC/SEIT 2022), August 9-11, 2022,
Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. [Online]. Available:
[11] X. Chen, D. Wu, and I. Ahmad, “Optimized viewport-
adaptive 360-degree video streaming,” CAAI Transac-
tions on Intelligence Technology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp.
347–359, 2021.
[12] S. Lederer, C. M ̈uller, and C. Timmerer, “Dynamic
adaptive streaming over http dataset,” in Proceedings
of the 3rd multimedia systems conference, 2012, pp.
[13] J. Kua, G. Armitage, and P. Branch, “A survey of rate
adaptation techniques for dynamic adaptive streaming
over http,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutori-
als, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1842–1866, 2017.
[14] H. Wu, X. Li, G. Wang, G. Cheng, and
X. Hu, “Resolution identification of encrypted
video streaming based on http/2 features,”
ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Commun. Appl.,
vol. 19, no. 2, feb 2023. [Online]. Available:
[15] M. Mahmoud, S. Rizou, A. S. Panayides, N. V. Kan-
tartzis, G. K. Karagiannidis, P. I. Lazaridis, and Z. D.
Zaharis, “A survey on optimizing mobile delivery of
360° videos: Edge caching and multicasting,” IEEE
Access, 2023.
[16] A. Kumar, S. Banerjea, and M. Pandey, “Churn-
tolerant cdn at the edge for adaptive video stream-
ing: towards multi-connection approach using http/2,”
International Journal of Information Technology,
vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 3491–3497, 2023.
[17] M. Nguyen, H. Amirpour, F. Tashtarian, C. Timmerer,
and H. Hellwagner, “Performance analysis of h2br:
Http/2-based segment upgrading to improve the qoe
in has,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, pp. 1–35,
[18] N. V. Hung, T. D. Chien, N. P. Ngoc, and T. H.
Truong, “Flexible http-based video adaptive streaming
for good qoe during sudden bandwidth drops,” EAI
Endorsed Transactions on Industrial Networks and
Intelligent Systems, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. e3–e3, 2023.
[19] X. Corbillon, F. De Simone, and G. Simon, “360-
degree video head movement dataset,” in Proceedings
of the 8th ACM on Multimedia Systems Conference,
ser. MMSys’17. Taipei, Taiwan: Association for
Computing Machinery, 2017, p. 199–204.
[20] JVET, “360lib,”,
October 2016. [Online]. Available:
[21] J. M. Boyce, Y. Ye, J. Chen, and A. K. Ramasubra-
monian, “Overview of shvc: Scalable extensions of the
high efficiency video coding standard,” IEEE Trans-
actions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology,
vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 20–34, 2015.